Homicides of black people in Brazil: A study of different regions, using generalized additive regression models-with a geo-spatial component
The number of homicides in Brazil has reached record numbers, and when the race/colour of the victims is considered-an extreme inequality is evident- with a particularly high number of deaths in black and brown populations. The goal of this work was to analyse homicide rates of black people in Brazil from the years 2000 to 2016, using generalized additive regression models, with a geo-spatial component. The statistics were applied to understand the social reasons for homicide risks in the black population in Brazil’s 26 states and Federal District with reference to the human development index and its components (education, longevity and income) as well as social inequality indices (Gini and Theil). This socioecological, epidemiological study to estimate the risk of homicide in the black population with a time series component, shows that this risk has increased linearly over time. Less longevity and low income correlated with a greater risk of homicide-while the Gini and Theil indices showed that in places where there are greater inequalities, there is also a higher risk of homicide in both black and non-black populations. The results - regarding the possibility of relating social indicators to homicide risk in the regional units under study, would support implementation of interventional public policy measures.
Beato Filho CC, 1999. Public security policies and the police issue. São Paulo Perspec 13:13-27. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-88391999000400003
Bozkurt I, Karakus R, Yildiz M, 2018. Spatial determinants of financial inclusion over time. J Int Dev 30:1474-504. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jid.3376
Cerqueira D, Lima RS, Bueno S, Neme C, Ferreira H, Alves PP, Marques D, Reis M, Cypriano O, Sobral I, Pacheco D, Lins G, Armstrong K, 2019. Atlas of violence. Institute for Applied Economic Research and Brazilian Forum of Public Security, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 72 pp. Available from: https://agenciabrasil.ebc.com.br/en/direitos-humanos/noticia/2019-06/violence-atlas-reveals-homicide-rate-brazil-42 Accessed: 21 March 2021.
Costa RN, Pérez Duarte S, 2019. Not all inequality measures were created equal - The measurement of wealth inequality, its decompositions, and an application to European household wealth. Statistics Paper Series 31, European Central Bank. Available from: https://ideas.repec.org/p/ecb/ecbsps/201931.html Accessed: 17 March 2021.
Do LN, Vu HL, Vo BQ, Liu Z, Phung D, 2019. An effective spatial-temporal attention based neural network for traffic flow prediction. Transport Res Part C Emerg Technol 108:12-28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trc.2019.09.008
Felson M, Clarke R, (Eds.), 1997. Business in crime prevention. Criminal Justice Press, Monsey, NY, USA, 293 pp.
Flores T, 2016. Human Rights: different approaches. Chapter six. pp 109-125 in Brazilian Chamber of Young Writers, (Ed.), Genocide of Black Youth in Brazil: the new forms of war, race and coloniality of power. Human Rights: different approaches. Brazilian Chamber of Young Writers, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Gini C, 1912. Variabilità e mutabilità. In: Pizetti E, and Salvemini T, (Eds.), Memorie di metodologica statistica. Libreria Eredi Virgilio Veschi, Rome, Italy, 01:211-382.
Gomes R, Minayo MCDS, Assis SGD, Njaine K, Schenker M, 2006. Successes and limits in preventing violence: a case study of nine Brazilian experiences. Sci Collect Health 11:397-408. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S1413-81232006000200017
Gordis L, 2004. Epidemiology, 3rd edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam & Philadelphia, 416 pp.
Greenwood PW, Model K, Rydell CP, Chiesa J, 1996. Diverting children from a life of crime: measuring costs and benefits. RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA, USA, 69 pp. Available from: https://doi.org/10.7249/RB4010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.7249/RB4010
HDR (Human Development Report), 2019. Technical notes. Beyond income, beyond averages, beyond today: Inequalities in human development in the 21st century. Available from: https://www. hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2019_technical_notes.pdf Accessed: 4 December 2020.
Instituto Igarapé, 2017. Homicide observatory: visualization tool shows the distribution, dimensions and dynamics of lethal violence in the world. Available from: https://www.igarape.org.br/apps/observatorio-de-homicidios/ Accessed: 18 June 2019.
IPEA (Brazilian Institute for Applied Economic Research), 2017. Atlas of violence, 2017. Consultation: violence by race and gene. Available from: http://www.ipea.gov.br/atlasviolencia/filtros-series/3/violencia-por-raca-e-genero Accessed: 5 February 2019.
Jannuzzi PDM, 2016. Social indicators in the formulation and evaluation of public policies. Unidade de Ensino e Aprendizado de Viçosa, UNESAV, 9 p. Available from: https://www.nescon.medicina.ufmg.br/biblioteca/imagem/2012.pdf
Lima RC, Moreira EBM, Nóbrega RS, 2016. The climatic influence on the dengue epidemic in the city of Recife by Geographic Information System. Braz J Phys Geogr 9:384-98. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5935/1984-2295.20160027
Marchant R, Haan S, Clancey G, Cripps S, 2018. Applying machine learning to criminology: semi-parametric spatial-demographic Bayesian regression. Secur Inform 7:1-19. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13388-018-0030-x
Marcussi AA, 2018. Anti-colonialism as a tragedy: “the black Jacobins” between history and politics. Cad Hist 19:95-122. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5752/P.2237-8871.2018v19n30p95-122
Marmelstein G, 2021. Discriminação por Preconceito Implícito. JusPodivm, Brazil, 144 pp.
Martinez EZ, Zucoloto ML, Galdino G, Nunes AA, Lizzi EADS, 2020. Spatiotemporal distribution of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome incidence in Brazil between 2012 and 2016. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 53:1-5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/0037-8682-0086-2019
Martins MM, 1998. Reflections on prejudice-in search of more human relationships. Interação Psicol 2:3-19.
Minayo MCDS, 1994. Social violence from the perspective of public health. Cad Saúde Públ 10:7-18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X1994000500002
Minayo MCDS, Souza ERD, 1997. Violence and health as an interdisciplinary and collective action field. Hist Ciens Saúde-Manguinhos 4:513-31. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-59701997000300006
Morgenstern H, 1995. Ecologic studies in epidemiology: concepts, principles, and methods. Annu Rev Public Health 16:61-81. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pu.16.050195.000425
Pereira MI, 2018. The historical construction of racism in Brazil. Estado de Mina, Bras J Est Min. Available from: https://www.em.com.br/app/noticia/especiais/abolicao130anos/2018/05/11/noticia-abolicao130anos,957834/a-construcao-historica-do-racismo-no-brasil.shtml#:~:text=Racismo%20%C3%A9%20o%20preconceito%20e,os%20s%C3%A9culos%2016%20e%2019 Accessed: 4 December 2020.
Quirino KTM, 2017. Frameworks and advocacy on the genocide of young black people: analysis of the coverage of Folha de S. Paulo. University of Brasilia, 306 pp.
Ribeiro D, 2015. O povo brasileiro: a formação e o sentido do Brasil. Global, Brazil, 328 pp.
Rossi M, Alessi G, 2019. El Country: Brazil, Mexico and Venezuela are pushing the rise in global homicides. El País, Brazil. Available from: https://www.brasil.elpais.com/brasil/2019/06/05/politica/1559762691_083450.html Accessed: 4 December 2020.
Santos RR, Barreto Júnior JAS, Melo MLA, 2020. Mass incarceration of the black population in Brazil: analysis of the ineffectiveness of the impersonality principle of penal rules in face of the incarceration policies in the Soteropolitano Penitentiary System. Universidade Católica do Salvador, Brazil, 157 pp.
Sherman L, 1998. Thinking about crime prevention. In: Sherman LW, Gottfredson DC, MacKenzie DL, Eck J, Reuter P, Bushway SD, (Eds.), Preventing crime: what works, what doesn’t: what’s promising, 19 pp. U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice - News in Brief; July 1998. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/e520922006-001
Short Jr JF, 1997. Poverty, ethnicity and violent crime. Routledge/Taylor and Francis, London, UK, 259 pp.
Spiegelhalter DJ, Best NG, Carlin BP, Van der Linde A, 2014. The deviance information criterion: 12 years on. J Royal Stat Soc Series B Stat Methodol 76:485-93. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/rssb.12062
Theil H, 1967. Economics and information theory. Studies in mathematical and managerial economics, Vol. 7 (pp. xxii + 488 pp). Amsterdam, North Holland.
UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime), 2019. Global study on homicide: Executive summary. Available from: https://www.unodc.org/documents/data-andanalysis/gsh/Booklet1.pdf DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-74336-3_149-1
Waiselfisz JJ, 2012. Map of violence: the color of homicide in Brazil. 41 pp. Centro Brasileiro de Estudos Latino-Americanos, FLACSO Brasil, Secretaria de Políticas de Promoção da Igualdade Racial, Governo Federal do Brasil, Brasilia, Brasil.
WHO (World Health Organization), 2010. Violence prevention: the evidence. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 134 pp. Available from: https://apps.who.int/violence-info/about Accessed: 4 December 2020.
WHO (World Health Organization), 2015. Violence infor: Homicide: WHO Global Health Estimates. Available from: https://apps.who.int/violence-info/homicide
Wood SN, 2017. Generalized additive models: an introduction with R. Chapman and Hall/CRC/Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, FL, USA, 496 pp.
- Abstract views: 394
- PDF: 86
- HTML: 0
Copyright (c) 2021 the Author(s)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.