Geo-epidemiological reporting and spatial clustering of the 10 most prevalent cancers in Iran
Cancer is a problem of both global and local concern. We determined the geo-epidemiological and spatial distribution of the 10 most common cancers in Iran. We used the data of the Iranian Cancer Registry for the year 2014 analysing the prevalence of 112,131 registered cancer cases with the aim of detecting potential geographical underlying causes. The geographic distribution of cancers is reported as standardized incidence rates at the provincial level considering risk with respect to sex and age. A geographical information systems (GIS) approach based on Anselin Local Moran’s index method was used to map clusters and spatial autocorrelation patterns. The mean age of the patients was 55.6 (±17.8) and 61.7 (±18.2) for females and males, respectively, in the database which showed 46.1% (n=51,665) of all cases to be female. Analysis of the spatial distribution of cancers showed significant differences among the different provinces. Stomach and breast cancers were the most prevalent cancers in men and females, respectively. The highest incidence rates of stomach cancer were found in Ardabil and Zanjan provinces, with 48.38 and 48.08 per 100,000 population, respectively, while Tehran and Yazd provinces had the highest incidences of breast cancer, 51.0 and 47.5 per 100,000 population, respectively. Strong clustering patterns for stomach and breast cancers were identified in the north-western provinces and in Semnan Province, respectively. These patterns indicate a diversity of geo-epidemiological contributing factors to cancer incidence in Iran.
Abdi E, Latifi-Navid S, Yazdanbod A, Zahri S, 2016. Helicobacter pylori babA2 positivity predicts risk of gastric cancer in Ardabil, a very high-risk area in Iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 17:733-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.2.733
Alireza S, Mehdi N, Ali M, Alireza M, Reza M, Parkin D, 2005. Cancer occurrence in Iran in 2002, an international perspective. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 6:359.
Baade PD, Youlden DR, Krnjacki LJ, 2009. International epidemiology of prostate cancer: Geographical distribution and secular trends. Mol Nutr Food Res 53:171-84. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200700511
Bafandeh Y, Farhang S, 2009. Subsite distribution of gastric cancer in an area of high prevalence-northwest Iran. J Epidemiol 19:202-5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2188/jea.JE20080044
Bergquist R, Manada S, 2019. The world in your hands: GeoHealth then and now. Geospat Health 14:779. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4081/gh.2019.779
Bray F, Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Rebecca L, Siegel RL, Torre LA, Jemal A, 2018. Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. Ca Cancer J Clin 68:394-424. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.21492
Byrne C, Divekar SD, Storchan GB, Parodi DA, Martin MB, 2013. Metals and breast cancer. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 18:63-73. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10911-013-9273-9
Chamanparaa P, Moghimbeigi A, Faradmal J, Poorolajal J, 2015. Exploring the spatial patterns of three prevalent cancer latent risk factors in Iran; using a shared component model. IJER 2:68-77.
Global Burden of Disease Cancer Collaboration, 2019. Global, regional, and national cancer incidence, mortality, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life-years for 29 cancer groups, 1990 to 2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study. JAMA Oncol 5:1749-68.
Dolatkhah R, Somi MH, Jafarabadi MA, Hosseinalifam M, Sepahi S, Belalzadeh M, Nezamdoust M, Dastgiri S, 2020. Breast cancer survival and incidence: 10 years cancer registry data in the northwest. Int J Breast Cancer 2020:1963814. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/1963814
Fritz AG, 2013. International classification of diseases for oncology: ICD-O. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
Goshayeshi L, Khooiee A, Ghaffarzadegan K, Khorram MR, Bishehsari F, Hoseini B, Rezayat KA, Esmaeilzadeh A, Mozaffari HM, Ghanayee O, 2017. Screening for Lynch syndrome in cases with colorectal carcinoma from Mashhad. AIM 20:332-7.
Goshayeshi L, Pourahmadi A, Ghayour-Mobarhan M, Hashtarkhani S, Karimian S, Dastjerdi R, Eghbali B, Seyfi E, Kiani B, 2019. Colorectal cancer risk factors in north-eastern Iran: A retrospective cross-sectional study based on geographical information systems, spatial autocorrelation and regression analysis. Geospat Health 14:793. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4081/gh.2019.793
Gregorio DI, Samociuk H, DeChello L, Swede H, 2006. Effects of study area size on geographic characterizations of health events: prostate cancer incidence in Southern New England, USA, 1994-1998. Int J Health Geograph 5:8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-072X-5-8
Hailer NP, 2015. Orthopedic registry research-limitations and future perspectives. Acta Orthop 86:1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3109/17453674.2014.1002183
Halimi L, Bagheri N, Hoseini B, Hashtarkhani S, Goshayeshi L, Kiani B, 2020. Spatial analysis of colorectal cancer incidence in Hamadan Province, Iran: a retrospective cross-sectional study. Appl Spat Analy Policy 13:293-303. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12061-019-09303-9
Hao Y, Landrine H, Jemal A, Ward KC, Bayakly AR, Young JL, Flanders WD, Ward EM, 2011. Race, neighbourhood characteristics and disparities in chemotherapy for colorectal cancer. JECH 65:211-17. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2009.096008
Hassanipour S, Delam H, Nikbakht HA, Abdzadeh E, Salehiniya H, Arab-Zozani M, Ghaem H, 2019. The incidence of laryngeal cancer in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis. CEGH 7:457-63. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cegh.2019.02.003
Huncharek M, Haddock KS, Reid R, Kupelnick B, 2010. Smoking as a risk factor for prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of 24 prospective cohort studies. AJPH 100:693-701. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2008.150508
Jacquez GM, Greiling DA, 2003. Geographic boundaries in breast, lung and colorectal cancers in relation to exposure to air toxics in Long Island, New York. Int J Health Geograph 2:4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-072X-2-3
Kamangar F, Dores GM, Anderson WF, 2006. Patterns of cancer incidence, mortality, and prevalence across five continents: defining priorities to reduce cancer disparities in different geographic regions of the world. J Clin Oncol 24:2137-50. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2005.05.2308
Karimi G, Shahar S, Homayouni N, Rajikan R, Bakar NF, Othman MS, 2012. Association between trace element and heavy metal levels in hair and nail with prostate cancer. APJCP 13:4249-53. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.9.4249
Mirzaei M, Hosseini SA, Ghoncheh M, Soheilipour M, Soltani S, Soheilipour F, Salehiniya H, 2016. Epidemiology and trend of head and neck cancers in Iran. Global J Health Sci 8:189. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v8n1p189
Mosavi-Jarrahi A, Moini M, Mohagheghi MA, Alebouyeh M, Yazdizadeh B, Shahabian A, Nahvijo A, Alizadeh R, 2007. Clustering of childhood cancer in the inner city of Tehran metropolitan area: a GIS-based analysis. Int J Hyg Environ Health 210:113-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2006.08.005
Mousavi SM, Davanlou M, Gouya MM, Hajsadeghi N, Ramazani R, Seddighi Z, 2008. Cancer incidence and mortality in Iran. Ann Oncol 20:556-63.
Mousavi SM, Gouya MM, Ramazani R, Davanlou M, Hajsadeghi N, Seddighi Z, 2009. Cancer incidence and mortality in Iran. Ann Oncol 20:556-63. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdn642
Nematolahi S, Ayatollahi MT, 2017. A comparison of breast cancer survival among young, middle-aged, and elderly patients in southern Iran using Cox and empirical Bayesian additive hazard models. Epidemiol Health 39. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2017043
Roshandel G, Ghanbari-Motlagh A, Partovipour E, Salavati F, Hasanpour-Heidari S, Mohammadi G, Khoshaabi M, Sadjadi A, Davanlou M, Tavangar SM, 2019. Cancer incidence in Iran in 2014: results of the Iranian National Population-based Cancer Registry. Cancer Epidemiol 61:50-8.
Scholten H, de Lepper MJ, 1991. The benefits of the application of geographical information systems in public and environmental health. World Health Stat Q 44:160-70.
Segi M, 1960. Cancer mortality for selected sites in 24 countries (1950-57). Department of Public Health, Tohoku University of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.
The Lancet, 2018. GLOBOCAN 2018: counting the toll of cancer. Lancet 392:985. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32252-9
Yomralioglu T, Colak EH, Aydinoglu AC, 2009. Geo-relationship between cancer cases and the environment by GIS: A case study of Trabzon in Turkey. Int J Environ Res Public Health 6:3190-204. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph6123190
Yusefi A, Lankarani KB, Bastani P, Radinmanesh M, Kavosi Z, 2018. Risk factors for gastric cancer: a systematic review. APJCP 19:591.
- Abstract views: 494
- PDF: 149
- HTML: 0
Copyright (c) 2021 the Author(s)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.