Leptospirosis and its spatial and temporal relations with natural disasters in six municipalities of Santa Catarina, Brazil, from 2000 to 2016

Abstract

Leptospirosis is a serious bacterial infection that occurs worldwide, with fatality rate of up to 40% in the most severe cases. The number of cases peaks during the rainy season and may reach epidemic proportions in the event of flooding. It is possible that people living in areas affected by natural disasters are at greater risk of contracting the disease. The aim of this study was to identify clusters of relatively higher risk for leptospirosis occurrence, both in space and time, in six municipalities of Santa Catarina, Brazil, which had the highest incidence of the disease between 2000 and 2016, and to evaluate if these clusters coincide with the occurrence of natural disasters. The cases were geocoded with the geographic coordinates of patients’ home addresses, and the analysis was performed using SaTScan software. The areas mapped as being at risk for hydrological and mass movements were compared with the locations of detected leptospirosis clusters. The disease was more common in men and in the age group from 15 to 69 years. In the scan statistics performed, only space-time showed significant results. Clusters were detected in all municipalities in 2008, when natural disasters preceded by heavy rainfall occurred. One of the municipalities also had clusters in 2011. In these clusters, most of the cases lived in urban areas and areas at risk for experiencing natural disasters. The interaction between time (time of disaster occurrence) and space (areas at risk of experiencing natural disasters) were the determining factors affecting cluster formation.

Dimensions

Altmetric

PlumX Metrics

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Bermudi PMM, Guirado MM, Rodas LAC, Dibo MR, Chiaravalloti Neto F, 2018. Spatio-temporal analysis of the occurrence of human visceral leishmaniasis in Araçatuba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 51:452-460. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/0037-8682-0505-2017

Cardim MFM, Guirado MM, Dibo MR, Chiaravalloti Neto F, 2016. Leishmaniose visceral no estado de São Paulo, Brasil: análise espacial e espaço-temporal. Rev Saude Publica 50:1-11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S1518-8787.2016050005965

Coleman M, Coleman M, Mabuza AM, Kok G, Coetzee M, Durrheim DN, 2009. Using the SaTScan method to detect local malaria clusters for guiding malaria control programmes. Malar J 8:1-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-8-68

DATASUS - Departamento de Informática do SUS. Informações de Saúde (TABNET). Available from: http://www2.datasus.gov.br/DATASUS/index.php?area=02. Accessed: May 11, 2019.

Deshmukh P, Narang R, Jain J, Jain M, Pote K, Narang P, Raj RV, Kumar P, Vijayachari P, 2019. Leptospirosis in Wardha District, Central India - Analysis of hospital based surveillance data. Clin Epidemiol Glob Health 7:102-106. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cegh.2018.02.005

Farinelli EC, Baquero OS, Stephan C, Chiaravalloti Neto F, 2018. Low socioeconomic condition and the risk of dengue fever: A direct relationship. Acta Trop 180:47-57. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.01.005

Freitas CM, Silva DRX, Sena ARM, Silva EL, Sales LBF, Carvalho ML, Mazoto ML, Barcellos C, Costa AM, Oliveira MLC, Corvalán C, 2014. Desastres naturais e saúde: uma análise da situação do Brasil. Cien Saude Colet 19:3645-3656. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-81232014199.00732014

Gonçalves NV, Araújo EM, Sousa Júnior AS, Pereira WMM, Miranda CSC, Campos PSS, Matos MWS, Palácios VRCM, 2016. Distribuição espaço-temporal da leptospirose e fatores de risco em Belém, Pará, Brasil. Cien Saude Colet 21:3947-3955. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-812320152112.07022016

Gutiérrez JD, Martínez-Veja RA, 2018. Spatiotemporal dynamics of human leptospirosis and its relationship with rainfall anomalies in Colombia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 112:115–123. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/trstmh/try032

Han J, Zhu L, Kulldorff M, Hostovich S, Stinchcomb DG, Tatalovich Z, Lewis DR, Feuer EJ, 2016. Using Gini coefficient to determining optimal cluster reporting sizes for spatial scan statistics. Int J Health Geogr 15:1-11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12942-016-0056-6

IBGE - Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Estados@. 2018. Available from: https://cidades.ibge.gov.br/brasil/sc/panorama. Accessed: June 09, 2019.

IBGE – Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Cidades@. 2010. Available from: https://cidades.ibge.gov.br/. Accessed: June 09, 2019.

Kugeler K J, Farley GM, Forrester JD, Mead PS, 2015. Geographic Distribution and Expansion of Human Lyme Disease, United States. Emerg Infect Dis 21:1455-1457. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2108.141878

Kulldorff MA, 1997. Spatial scan statistic. Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods 26:1481-1496. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03610929708831995

Kulldorff MA, 2015. Information Management Services, Inc. SaTScanTM User Guide. SaTScanTM v. 9.4: Software for the spatial and space-time scan statistics [internet]. Boston (MA): Harvard University. Tradução de Alessandra Cristina Guedes Pellini. Available from: http://www.satscan.org/techdoc.html. Accessed: January 02, 2017.

Lara JM, Zuben AV, Costa JV, Donalisio MR, Francisco PMSB, 2019. Leptospirose no município de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil: 2007 a 2014. Rev Bras Epidemiol 22:1-13. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/1980-549720190016

Londe LR, Marchezini V, Conceição RS, Bortoletto KC, Silva AEP, Santos EV, Reani RT, 2015. Impactos de desastres socioambientais em saúde pública: estudos dos casos dos Estados de Santa Catarina em 2008 e Pernambuco em 2010. Rev Bras Estud Popul 32:537-562. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-3098201500000031

Melchior LAK, Chiaravalloti Neto F, 2016. Spatial and spatio-temporal analysis of malaria in the state of Acre, western Amazon, Brazil. Geospat Health 11:233-239. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4081/gh.2016.443

MS, Ministério da Saúde. Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde. Coordenação-Geral de Desenvolvimento da Epidemiologia em Serviços, 2017. Guia de Vigilância em Saúde. 2. ed. Brasília: Ministério da Saúde, 705 pp.

MS, Ministério da Saúde. Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde. Departamento de Vigilância Epidemiológica, 2010. Doenças infecciosas e parasitárias: guia de bolso. 8. ed. rev. Brasília: Ministério da Saúde. 444 pp.

OPAS - Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde. Ministério da Saúde, 2014. Desastres Naturais e Saúde no Brasil. (Série Desenvolvimento Sustentável e Saúde, 2). Brasília, DF: OPAS, Ministério da Saúde. 49 pp.

Paploski IAD, 2013. História natural da leptospirose urbana: influência do sexo e da idade no risco de infecção, progressão clínica da doença e óbito. Dissertação (Mestrado em Biotecnologia em Saúde e Medicina Investigativa) – Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Salvador – BA.

Pelissari DM, Maia-Elkhoury ANS, Arsky MLNS, Nunes ML, 2011. Revisão sistemática dos fatores associados à leptospirose no Brasil, 2000-2009. Epidemiol Serv Saude 20:565-574. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5123/S1679-49742011000400016

Pellini ACG, Cavalin RF, Francisco MA, Chiaravalloti Neto F, Zanetta DMT, 2017. A trajetória da epidemia de aids nas mulheres residentes no município de São Paulo, de 1983 a 2012. Hygeia 13:42-57. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14393/Hygeia132604

Pinto PFPS, Chiaravalloti Neto F, Ribeiro MCSA, 2018. Tuberculosis among South American immigrants in São Paulo municipality: an analysis in space and time. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 22:80–85. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5588/ijtld.17.0320

Romero-Vivas CM, Falconar AK, 2016. Leptospira spp. y leptospirosis humana. Salud Uninorte 32:123-143. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14482/sun.32.1.8479

S2ID - Sistema Integrado de Informações sobre Desastres. Arquivo Digital. Available from: https://s2id-search.labtrans.ufsc.br/. Accessed: April 15, 2018.

Santos LBL, Assis MC, Silva AEP, Angelis CF, 2012. Sobre risco, ameaça e vulnerabilidade à Leptospirose em situações pós-alagamentos, inundações e enxurradas: reconstruindo o episódio do Vale do Itajaí (2008-2009). In: CONGRESSO BRASILEIRO SOBRE DESASTRES NATURAIS. Anais... Rio Claro: Unesp, 1-10.

Silva FA, 2014. Percepção dos riscos e desastres ambientais dos anos de 2008 e 2011 em Jaraguá do Sul – SC. Dissertação (Mestrado em Geografia) - Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Três Lagoas - MS.

Silva Dias MAF, 2014. Eventos climáticos extremos. Revista USP: Dossiê Clima 103:33-40. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.2316-9036.v0i103p33-40

Silva Dias MAF (Ed.), 2009. As chuvas de novembro de 2008 em Santa Catarina: um estudo de caso visando à melhoria do monitoramento e da previsão de eventos extremos: nota técnica INPE-INMET-EPAGRI. São José dos Campos. 67 pp.

Souza VMM, Arsky MLNS, Castro APB, Araújo WN, 2011. Anos potenciais de vida perdidos e custos hospitalares da leptospirose no Brasil. Rev Saude Publica 45:1001-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-89102011005000070

Sulistyawati, Nirmalawati T, Mardenta RN, 2016. Spatial analysis of leptospirosis disease in Bantul Regency Yogyakarta. KEMAS 12:111-119. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15294/kemas.v12i1.4615

Sumanta H, Wibawa T, Hadisusanto S, Nuryati A, Kusnanto H, 2015. Spatial Analysis of Leptospira in Rats, Water and Soil in Bantul District Yogyakarta Indonesia. Open J Epidemiol 5:22-31. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/ojepi.2015.51004

Traxler RM, Callinan LS, Holman RC, Steiner C, Guerra MA, 2014. Leptospirosis-Associated Hospitalizations, United States, 1998–2009. Emerg Infect Dis 20:1273-1279. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2008.130450

WHO, Leptospirosis. 2019. Available from: https://www.who.int/topics/leptospirosis/en/. Accessed: May 20, 2019.

WHO, 2010. Leptospirosis Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (LERG). Available from: https://www.who.int/zoonoses/diseases/lerg/en/. Accessed: May 20, 2019.

WHO, 2009. Estimating the global burden of human Leptospirosis. Available from: https://www.who.int/zoonoses/diseases/Lerg_brochure.pdf?ua=1. Accessed: May 20, 2019.

Xavier DR, Barcellos C, Barros HS, Magalhães MAFM, Matos VP, Pedroso MM, 2014a. Organização, disponibilização e possibilidades de análise de dados sobre desastres de origem climática e seus impactos sobre a saúde no Brasil. Cien Saude Colet 19:3657-3668. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-81232014199.00992014

Xavier DR, Barcellos C, Freitas CM, 2014b. Eventos climáticos extremos e consequências sobre a saúde: o desastre de 2008 em Santa Catarina segundo diferentes fontes de informação. Ambiente & Sociedade 17:273-294. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/1809-4422ASOC1119V1742014

Zucco FD, Magalhães MRA, Moretti SLA, 2010. Gestão de Riscos e Desastres Naturais no Turismo: um estudo do município de Blumenau/SC. Turismo em análise 21:594-620. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.1984-4867.v21i3p594-620

Published
2020-11-26
Info
Issue
Section
Original Articles
Keywords:
Leptospira, risk areas, geoprocessing, SaTScan, Brazil
Statistics
  • Abstract views: 1233

  • PDF: 210
How to Cite
Silva, A. E. P., Chiaravalloti Neto, F., & Conceição, G. M. de S. (2020). Leptospirosis and its spatial and temporal relations with natural disasters in six municipalities of Santa Catarina, Brazil, from 2000 to 2016. Geospatial Health, 15(2). https://doi.org/10.4081/gh.2020.903