Pathways to urban health and well-being: measuring and modelling of community services in a medium size city

Abstract

Social and natural capital are fundamental to people’s wellbeing, often within the context of local community. Developing communities and linking people together provide benefits in terms of mental well-being, physical activity and other associated health outcomes. The research presented here was carried out in Christchurch - Ōtautahi, New Zealand, a city currently re-building, after a series of devastating earthquakes in 2010 and 2011. Poor mental health has been shown to be a significant post-earthquake problem, and social connection has been postulated as part of a solution. By curating a disparate set of community services, activities and facilities, organised into a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) database, we created i) an accessibility analysis of 11 health and well-being services, ii) a mobility scenario analysis focusing on 4 general well-being services and iii) a location-allocation model focusing on 3 primary health care and welfare location optimisation. Our results demonstrate that overall, the majority of neighbourhoods in Christchurch benefit from a high level of accessibility to almost all the services; but with an urban-rural gradient (the further away from the centre, the less services are available, as is expected). The noticeable exception to this trend, is that the more deprived eastern suburbs have poorer accessibility, suggesting social inequity in accessibility. The findings presented here show the potential of optimisation modelling and database curation for urban and community facility planning purposes.

Dimensions

Altmetric

PlumX Metrics

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Adeniyi, A.F., Uloko, A.E., Sani-Suleiman, I., 2009. Exercise Capacity in Type 2 Diabetes Patients: A Preliminary Investigation. Afr. J. Biomed. Res. 12, 175-179–179.

Ala-Hulkko, T., Kotavaara, O., Alahuhta, J., Helle, P., Hjort, J., 2016. Introducing accessibility analysis in mapping cultural ecosystem services. Ecol. Indic. 66, 416–427. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2016.02.013

Albino, V., Berardi, U., Dangelico, R.M., 2015. Smart Cities: Definitions, Dimensions, Performance, and Initiatives. J. Urban Technol. 22, 3–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/10630732.2014.942092

Bagheri, N., Benwell, G.L., Holt, A., 2005. Measuring spatial accessibility to primary health care.

Bagnall, A.-M., South, J., Di Martino, S., Southby, K., Pilkington, G., Mitchell, B., Pennington, A., Corcoran, R., 2018. Places, spaces, people and wellbeing: full review. School of Health and Community Studies, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, UK.

Beere, P., 2016. Creating a Road Network Analysis Layer with Travel Time Estimates using Opensource Data. GeoHealth Laboratory University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Beheshtifar, S., Alimoahmmadi, A., 2015. A multiobjective optimization approach for location-allocation of clinics. Int. Trans. Oper. Res. 22, 313–328. https://doi.org/10.1111/itor.12088

Camarri, B., Eastwood, P.R., Cecins, N.M., Thompson, P.J., Jenkins, S., 2006. Six minute walk distance in healthy subjects aged 55-75 years. Respir. Med. 100, 658–665. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2005.08.003

Carrus, G., Scopelliti, M., Lafortezza, R., Colangelo, G., Ferrini, F., Salbitano, F., Agrimi, M., Portoghesi, L., Semenzato, P., Sanesi, G., 2015. Go greener, feel better? The positive effects of biodiversity on the well-being of individuals visiting urban and peri-urban green areas. Landsc. Urban Plan. 134, 221–228. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.10.022

Cetin, M., 2015. Using GIS analysis to assess urban green space in terms of accessibility: case study in Kutahya. Int. J. Sustain. Dev. World Ecol. 22, 420–424. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504509.2015.1061066

Chen, I.H., Kuo, K.N., Andriacchi, T.P., 1997. The influence of walking speed on mechanical joint power during gait. Gait Posture 6, 171–176. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0966-6362(97)00009-X

Chetta, A., Zanini, A., Pisi, G., Aiello, M., Tzani, P., Neri, M., Olivieri, D., 2006. Reference values for the 6-min walk test in healthy subjects 20-50 years old. Respir. Med. 100, 1573–1578. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2006.01.001

Costanza, R., d’Arge, R., de Groot, R., Farber, S., Grasso, M., Hannon, B., Limburg, K., Naeem, S., O’Neill, R.V., Paruelo, J., Raskin, R.G., Sutton, P., van den Belt, M., 1997. The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387, 253–260. https://doi.org/10.1038/387253a0

Costanza, R., Fisher, B., Ali, S., Beer, C., Bond, L., Boumans, R., Danigelis, N.L., Dickinson, J., Elliott, C., Farley, J., Gayer, D.E., Glenn, L.M., Hudspeth, T., Mahoney, D., McCahill, L., McIntosh, B., Reed, B., Rizvi, S.A.T., Rizzo, D.M., Simpatico, T., Snapp, R., 2007. Quality of life: An approach integrating opportunities, human needs, and subjective well-being. Ecol. Econ. 61, 267–276. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2006.02.023

Cram, F., McCreanor, T., Tuhiwai Smith, L., Nairn, R., Johnstone, W., 2006. Kaupapa Māori Research and Pākehā Social Science: Epistemological Tensions in a Study of Māori Health. Hülili: Multidisciplinary Research on Hawaiian Well-Being 3, 41–68.

Dadvand, P., Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J., Esnaola, M., Forns, J., Basagaña, X., Alvarez-Pedrerol, M., Rivas, I., López-Vicente, M., Pascual, M.D.C., Su, J., Jerrett, M., Querol, X., Sunyer, J., 2015. Green spaces and cognitive development in primary schoolchildren. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 112, 7937–7942. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1503402112

Ekkel, E.D., de Vries, S., 2017. Nearby green space and human health: Evaluating accessibility metrics. Landsc. Urban Plan. 157, 214–220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2016.06.008

Exeter, D.J., Zhao, J., Crengle, S., Lee, A., Browne, M., 2017. The New Zealand Indices of Multiple Deprivation (IMD): A new suite of indicators for social and health research in Aotearoa, New Zealand. PLOS ONE 12, e0181260. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181260

Finlay, J., Franke, T., McKay, H., Sims-Gould, J., 2015. Therapeutic landscapes and wellbeing in later life: Impacts of blue and green spaces for older adults. Health Place 34, 97–106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2015.05.001

Gascon, M., Triguero-Mas, M., Martínez, D., Dadvand, P., Forns, J., Plasència, A., Nieuwenhuijsen, M., Gascon, M., Triguero-Mas, M., Martínez, D., Dadvand, P., Forns, J., Plasència, A., Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J., 2015. Mental Health Benefits of Long-Term Exposure to Residential Green and Blue Spaces: A Systematic Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public. Health 12, 4354–4379. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120404354

Grant, S., 2017. Social enterprise in New Zealand: an overview. Soc. Enterp. J. 13, 410–426. https://doi.org/10.1108/SEJ-09-2017-0046

Guagliardo, M.F., 2004. Spatial accessibility of primary care: concepts, methods and challenges. Int. J. Health Geogr. 3, 3. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-072X-3-3

Guerry, A.D., Polasky, S., Lubchenco, J., Chaplin-Kramer, R., Daily, G.C., Griffin, R., Ruckelshaus, M., Bateman, I.J., Duraiappah, A., Elmqvist, T., Feldman, M.W., Folke, C., Hoekstra, J., Kareiva, P.M., Keeler, B.L., Li, S., McKenzie, E., Ouyang, Z., Reyers, B., Ricketts, T.H., Rockström, J., Tallis, H., Vira, B., 2015. Natural capital and ecosystem services informing decisions: From promise to practice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 112, 7348–7355. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1503751112

Harmthworth, G.R., Awatere, S., 2013. INDIGENOUS MĀORI KNOWLEDGE AND PERSPECTIVES OF ECOSYSTEMS, in: New Zealand – Conditions and Trends. Manaaki Whenua Press, Lincoln, New Zealand, pp. 274–286.

Helliwell, J.F., Putnam, R.D., 2004. The social context of well-being. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 359, 1435–1446. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2004.1522

Hogg, D., Kingham, S., Wilson, T.M., Ardagh, M., 2016. The effects of relocation and level of affectedness on mood and anxiety symptom treatments after the 2011 Christchurch earthquake. Soc. Sci. Med. 1982 152, 18–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.01.025

Kenney, C., 2019. Ahi Kā Roa, Ahi Kā Ora Ōtautahi: Māori, Recovery Trajectories and Resilience in Canterbury, New Zealand, in: James, H. (Ed.), Population, Development, and the Environment: Challenges to Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals in the Asia Pacific. Springer Singapore, Singapore, pp. 375–394. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-2101-6_22

Kingham, S., Dioniso, R., Newman, P., 2015. The right tools at the right time: Encouraging community involvement in the post-disaster reconstruction of Christchurch, New Zealand. Presented at the IGU Urban Commission Annual Conference, 9th-16th August 2015, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Kingston, R., 2007. Public Participation in Local Policy Decision-making: The Role of Web-based Mapping. Cartogr. J. 44, 138–144. https://doi.org/10.1179/000870407X213459

Langford, M., Higgs, G., 2006. Measuring Potential Access to Primary Healthcare Services: The Influence of Alternative Spatial Representations of Population. Prof. Geogr. 58, 294–306. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9272.2006.00569.x

Marans, R.W., 2015. Quality of urban life & environmental sustainability studies: Future linkage opportunities. Habitat Int., Measuring the Prosperity of Cities 45, 47–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2014.06.019

Marek, L., Campbell, M., Bui, L., 2017. Shaking for innovation: The (re)building of a (smart) city in a post disaster environment. Cities 63, 41–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2016.12.013

Masser, I., 2001. Managing our urban future: the role of remote sensing and geographic information systems. Habitat Int. 25, 503–512. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0197-3975(01)00021-2

McGrail, M.R., Humphreys, J.S., 2014. Measuring spatial accessibility to primary health care services: Utilising dynamic catchment sizes. Appl. Geogr. 54, 182–188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2014.08.005

Meng, Y.L., Malczewski, J., 2015. A GIS-based multicriteria decision making approach for evaluating accessibility to public parks in Calgary, Alberta. Hum. Geogr. - J. Stud. Res. Hum. Geogr. 9, 29–41.

Ministry of Transport - Te Manatu Waka, 2016. Transport Outlook: Future state. A starting discussion on the future of transport in New Zealand. Ministry of Transport New Zealand, Wellington.

Nahapiet, J., Ghoshal, S., 1998. Social Capital, Intellectual Capital, and the Organizational Advantage. Acad. Manage. Rev. 23, 242–266. https://doi.org/10.2307/259373

Neutens, T., 2015. Accessibility, equity and health care: review and research directions for transport geographers. J. Transp. Geogr. 43, 14–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2014.12.006

Orchiston, C., Higham, J.E.S., 2016. Knowledge management and tourism recovery (de)marketing: the Christchurch earthquakes 2010–2011. Curr. Issues Tour. 19, 64–84. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2014.990424

Pearce, J., Witten, K., Bartie, P., 2006. Neighbourhoods and health: a GIS approach to measuring community resource accessibility. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 60, 389–395. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2005.043281

Polo, G., Acosta, C.M., Ferreira, F., Dias, R.A., 2015. Location-Allocation and Accessibility Models for Improving the Spatial Planning of Public Health Services. PLOS ONE 10, e0119190. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119190

Saeri, A.K., Cruwys, T., Barlow, F.K., Stronge, S., Sibley, C.G., 2018. Social connectedness improves public mental health: Investigating bidirectional relationships in the New Zealand attitudes and values survey. Aust. N. Z. J. Psychiatry 52, 365–374. https://doi.org/10.1177/0004867417723990

Salmond, C., Crampton, P., Sutton, F., 1998. NZDep91: A New Zealand index of deprivation. Aust. N. Z. J. Public Health 22, 835–837. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-842X.1998.tb01505.x

Sargisson, L., Sargent, L.T., Sargent, L.T., 2017. Living in Utopia : New Zealand’s Intentional Communities. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315250342

Schindler, M., Dionisio, R., Kingham, S., 2018. A multi-level perspective on a spatial data ecosystem: needs and challenges among urban planning stakeholders in New Zealand. International Journal of Spatial Data Infrastructures Research 13, 223–252. https://doi.org/10.2902/1725-0463.2018.13.art15

Shah, T.I., Bell, S., Wilson, K., 2016. Spatial Accessibility to Health Care Services: Identifying under-Serviced Neighbourhoods in Canadian Urban Areas. PLOS ONE 11, e0168208. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168208

Smoyer‐Tomic, K.E., Hewko, J.N., Hodgson, M.J., 2004. Spatial accessibility and equity of playgrounds in Edmonton, Canada. Can. Geogr. Géographe Can. 48, 287–302. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0008-3658.2004.00061.x

Terrier, P., Reynard, F., 2015. Effect of age on the variability and stability of gait: A cross-sectional treadmill study in healthy individuals between 20 and 69 years of age. Gait Posture 41, 170–174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2014.09.024

Thompson, C.W., Aspinall, P.A., 2011. Natural Environments and their Impact on Activity, Health, and Quality of Life. Appl. Psychol. Health Well-Being 3, 230–260. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1758-0854.2011.01053.x

Thornley, L., Ball, J., Signal, L., Aho, K.L.-T., Rawson, E., 2015. Building community resilience: learning from the Canterbury earthquakes. Kōtuitui N. Z. J. Soc. Sci. Online 10, 23–35. https://doi.org/10.1080/1177083X.2014.934846

Tsou, K.-W., Hung, Y.-T., Chang, Y.-L., 2005. An accessibility-based integrated measure of relative spatial equity in urban public facilities. Cities 22, 424–435. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2005.07.004

Vemuri, A.W., Costanza, R., 2006. The role of human, social, built, and natural capital in explaining life satisfaction at the country level: Toward a National Well-Being Index (NWI). Ecol. Econ. 58, 119–133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2005.02.008

Wiki, J., Kingham, S., Campbell, M., 2018. Accessibility to food retailers and socio-economic deprivation in urban New Zealand. N. Z. Geogr. 0. https://doi.org/10.1111/nzg.12201

Wiseman, J., Brasher, K., 2008. Community wellbeing in an unwell world: trends, challenges, and possibilities. J. Public Health Policy 29, 353–366. https://doi.org/10.1057/jphp.2008.16

Wood, A., Noy, I., Parker, M., 2016. The Canterbury rebuild five years on from the Christchurch earthquake. Reserve Bank N. Z. Bull. 79, 1–16.

Wridt, P., 2010. A Qualitative GIS Approach to Mapping Urban Neighborhoods with Children to Promote Physical Activity and Child-Friendly Community Planning. Environ. Plan. B Plan. Des. 37, 129–147. https://doi.org/10.1068/b35002

Yeo, I.-A., Yoon, S.-H., Yee, J.-J., 2013. Development of an Environment and energy Geographical Information System (E-GIS) construction model to support environmentally friendly urban planning. Appl. Energy 104, 723–739. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.11.053

Zhang, W., Cao, K., Liu, S., Huang, B., 2016. A multi-objective optimization approach for health-care facility location-allocation problems in highly developed cities such as Hong Kong. Comput. Environ. Urban Syst. 59, 220–230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2016.07.001

Zhou, X., Kim, J., 2013. Social disparities in tree canopy and park accessibility: A case study of six cities in Illinois using GIS and remote sensing. Urban For. Urban Green. 12, 88–97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2012.11.004

Published
2020-06-19
Info
Issue
Section
Original Articles
Keywords:
Community facilities, accessibility, Health and Well-being, location/allocation modelling, medium size city
Statistics
  • Abstract views: 535

  • PDF: 298
  • Appendix: 58
  • HTML: 0
How to Cite
Vannier, C., Campbell, M., & Kingham, S. (2020). Pathways to urban health and well-being: measuring and modelling of community services in a medium size city. Geospatial Health, 15(1). https://doi.org/10.4081/gh.2020.808