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This research estimates the contextual effects of populationlevel alcohol consumption on the average suicide mortality rate (SMR) in South Korea from 2013 to 2015. The effect was estimated not only in relation to the risk factors of suicide, such as divorce and being elderly, but also protective factors, such as church attendance and educational attainment. Using a multivariable spatial regression model, results show that only excessive population-level alcohol consumption pattern had a positive effect on SMR by increasing 0.24 standardized units in the SMR; the moderate pattern, however, had no significant impact. These results imply that the excessive population-level alcohol consumption pattern is a risk factor with respect to SMR. This research suggests the implementation of policies to control population- level alcohol consumption, based on a concern for public health, to reduce the suicide risk in South Korea.