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This is an ecological study with exploratory analysis of spatial and temporal data based on mortality data with respect to prostate cancer obtained from the Mortality Information System concerning residents of the state of Sergipe, Brazil between 2000 and 2015. The analysis of temporal trends was performed using the Joinpoint Regression Program through Poisson regression. Spatial analysis was performed using the empirical Bayesian model, Kernel analysis, Global Moran and Local indices. There were 1,986 deaths due to prostate cancer, most of which occurring after 60 years of age. An increasing, non-constant but significant trend in mortality rates was noted. The kernel density estimator showed hotspot densities of the highest rates of prostate cancer mortality in the north-eastern and central regions of the state. High-risk clusters were identified for prostate cancer mortality (I = 0.55, P<0.01). There was an increase in prostate cancer mortality rates and a heterogeneous geographic distribution of risk areas, with high-risk priority areas identified in certain regions of the state. These priority areas include the municipalities located in the Northeast (Amparo do São Francisco, Aquidabã, Canhoba, Cedro de São João and Telha), the West (Frei Paulo and Pedra Mole) and the south-western region of the state (Poço Verde and Simão Dias).