Analysis of the relationship between life expectancy and social determinants in a north-eastern region of Brazil, 2010-2017

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Andrezza Marques Duque
Marcus Valerius Peixoto
Shirley V.M.A Lima
Marco Aurélio O. Goes
Allan D. Santos
Karina Conceição Gomes Machado Araújo *
Marco Antonio P. Nunes
(*) Corresponding Author:
Karina Conceição Gomes Machado Araújo | kkkaraujo2006@yahoo.com.br

Abstract

The process of population aging is a worldwide reality becoming a global public health challenge. Although population aging is especially noticeable in more developed regions, there has also been a significant advance in the quantity of elderly people in areas with unfavourable socioeconomic indicators, and a rapid growth in countries with a low level of economic development. This article presents an analysis based on spatial autocorrelation of the relationship between life expectancy and social determinants in a north-eastern region of Brazil. An ecological study was conducted using the secondary data of social, demographic, and health indicators of elderly people collected in the Brazilian Demographic Census of the 75 municipalities of the state of Sergipe. Spatial autocorrelation was evaluated using the Moran global index and the local indicators of space association. Multiple linear regression models were used to identify the relationship between life expectancy and social determinants. The South-eastern region of the state presented clusters with all indicators pointing to acceptable lifestyles, whereas the municipalities of the north-western and far-eastern regions were characterized by values demonstrating precarious living conditions. The high dependency ratio, illiteracy rate, and unemployment rate among elderly people had a negative impact on life expectancy. The evidence confirms that there is an autocorrelation between social determinants and life expectancy, indicating that the worse the social, economic, and health indicators are, the lower the life expectancy. This finding indicates the need to redirect public policies and formulate strategies aimed at reducing social and health inequalities.


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