Spatial analysis of the prevalence of schistosomiasis in an endemic coastal area in north-eastern Brazil

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Allan D. Santos
Jonhnatas Silva
Ana Caroline Lima
Márcio Santos
Shirley Lima
Monalisa Amor
Carlos Santos
Arthur Vasconcelos
Silvio Dolabella
Karina C.G.M. Araújo *
(*) Corresponding Author:
Karina C.G.M. Araújo | kkkaraujo2006@yahoo.com.br

Abstract

Due to contact and misuse of water drainage channels, schistosomiasis has spread and become a constant concern in northeastern Brazil. The aim of this study was to monitor human cases of Schistosomiasis mansoni and the breeding areas of the snail intermediate host Biomphalaria glabrata through spatial analysis in a community named Invasão do Canal do Guaxinim, located in Barra dos Coqueiros City in an endemic coastal part of the state of Sergipe, Brazil. This research was performed as a cross-sectional epidemiological study conducted with parasitological and malacological surveys. To verify the spatial analysis, a two-year spatial point pattern analysis was performed by means of Kernel intensity estimation using TerraView software 4.2.2. A schistosomiasis prevalence reduction from 8.1% (2013) to 4.9% (2014) was observed but mild infection prevailed in adolescents and/or young adults during the two-year study. In malacological research, 387 specimens of snails of the genus B. glabrata were collected and all were negative with regard to schistosomiasis. Spatial analysis showed a strong, spatial trend of increased transmission risk areas north and south of the community, both in 2013 and 2014. In Invasão do Canal do Guaxinim itself, the increased risk was only seen in the northern part. When combined, the human and the malacological spatial analyses constituted an important methodological approach for monitoring and controlling this parasitic disease.

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