Building obesity in Canada: understanding the individual- and neighbourhood-level determinants using a multi-level approach
AbstractThe objective of this paper was to identify heterogeneities associated with the relationships between the body mass index (BMI) and individual as well as socio-environmental correlates at the individual- and area-levels. The data sources used were: (i) the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey; (ii) the 2001 Canadian Census; and (iii) the Enhanced Points of Interest (EPOI) database from the Desktop Mapping Technologies Inc. Participants were adults (≥20 years; n = 12,836; based on a survey weight scheme Nweighted = 5,418,218) from Toronto and Vancouver census metropolitan areas with no missing BMI records. In addition to conventional 1 km-buffers, we constructed activity-space-buffers to better assess the walkability and potentially increased BMI of individuals. Multi-level analysis was then applied to estimate the relative effects of both individual- and area-level risk-factors for increased BMI. The findings demonstrate a negative association between BMI and energy expenditure, mixed land uses, residential density and average value of dwellings, while a positive association was found with low educational attainment. Relationships were independent of individual characteristics such as age and ethnic- ity. Although the majority of the variation in these outcomes was found to be due to individual-level differences, this study did show significant differences at the area-level as well. The activity-space-buffers presented a vast improvement compared to the conventional 1 km-buffers. The results presented support the rationale that targeting high-risk individuals will only address a portion of the increasing BMI problem; it is essential to also address the characteristics of places that compel indi- viduals to make unhealthy choices.
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Copyright (c) 2014 Theodora Pouliou, Susan J. Elliott, Antonio Paez, K. Bruce Newbold
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