Predicting frequency distribution and influence of sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors of Schistosoma mansoni infection and analysis of co-infection with intestinal parasites

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Carla V.V. Rollemberg
Marília M.B.L. Silva
Karla C. Rollemberg
Fábio R. Amorim
Nayanna M.N. Lessa
Marcos D.S. Santos
Acácia M.B. Souza
Enaldo V. Melo
Roque P. Almeida
Ângela M. Silva
Guilherme L. Werneck
Mario A. Santos
José A.P. Almeida
Amélia R. Jesus *
(*) Corresponding Author:
Amélia R. Jesus |


Geospatial analysis was used to study the epidemiology of Schistosoma mansoni, intestinal parasites and co-infections in an area (Ilha das Flores) in Sergipe, Brazil. We collected individually georeferenced sociodemographic, behavioral and parasitological data from 500 subjects, analyzed them by conventional statistics, and produced risk maps by Kernel estimation. The prevalence rates found were: S. mansoni (24.0%), Trichuris trichiura (54.8%), Ascaris lumbricoides (49.2%), Hookworm (17.6%) and Entamoeba histolytica (7.0%). Only 59/500 (11.8%) individuals did not present any of these infections, whereas 279/500 (55.8%) were simultaneously infected by three or more parasites. We observed associations between S. mansoni infection and various variables such as male gender, being rice farmer or fisherman, low educational level, low income, water contact and drinking untreated water. The Kernel estimator indicated that high-risk areas coincide with the poorest regions of the villages as well as with the part of the villages without an adequate sewage system. We also noted associations between both A. lumbricoides and hookworm infections with low education and low income. A. lumbricoides infection and T. trichiura infection were both associated with drinking untreated water and residential open-air sewage. These findings call for an integrated approach to effectively control multiple parasitic infections.

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