The spatial distribution of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and An. arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mali

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N. Sogoba
P. Vounatsou *
M.M. Bagayoko
S. Doumbia
G. Dolo
L. Gosoniu
S.F. Traore
Y.T. Toure
T. Smith
(*) Corresponding Author:
P. Vounatsou | Penelope.vounatsou@unibas.ch

Abstract

Variations in the biology and ecology and the high level of genetic polymorphism of malaria vectors in Africa highlight the value of mapping their spatial distribution to enhance successful implementation of integrated vector management. The objective of this study was to collate data on the relative frequencies of Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis mosquitoes in Mali, to assess their association with climate and environmental covariates, and to produce maps of their spatial distribution. Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression models were fitted to identify environmental determinants of the relative frequencies of An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis species and to produce smooth maps of their geographical distribution. The frequency of An. arabiensis was positively associated with the normalized difference vegetation index, the soil water storage index, the maximum temperature and the distance to water bodies. It was negatively associated with the minimum temperature and rainfall. The predicted map suggests that, in West Africa, An. arabiensis is concentrated in the drier savannah areas, while An. gambiae s.s. prefers the southern savannah and land along the rivers, particularly the inner delta of Niger. Because the insecticide knockdown resistance (kdr) gene is reported only in An. gambiae s.s. in Mali, the maps provide valuable information for vector control. They may also be useful for planning future implementation of malaria control by genetically manipulated mosquitoes.

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