Health risk assessment along the wastewater and faecal sludge management and reuse chain of Kampala, Uganda: a visualization

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Samuel Fuhrimann
Mirko S. Winkler
Pierre H.H. Schneeberger
Charles B. Niwagaba
Joseph Buwule
Mohammed Babu
Kate Medlicott
Jürg Utzinger
Guéladio Cissé *
(*) Corresponding Author:
Guéladio Cissé |


Reuse of wastewater in agriculture is a common feature in the developing world. While this strategy might con- tribute to the livelihood of farming communities, there are health risks associated with the management and reuse of wastewater and faecal sludge. We visualise here an assessment of health risks along the major wastewater channel in Kampala, Uganda. The visualization brings to bear the context of wastewater reuse activities in the Nakivubo wetlands and emphasises interconnections to disease transmission pathways. The contextual features are complemented with findings from environmental sampling and a cross-sectional epidemiological survey in selected exposure groups. Our documentation can serve as a case study for a step-by-step implementation of risk assessment and management as described in the World Health Organization’s 2006 guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, greywater and excreta in light of the forthcoming san- itation safety planning approach.

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