Effect of soil surface salt on the density and distribution of the snail Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos in northeast Thailand

  • Apiporn Suwannatrai Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
  • Kulwadee Suwannatrai Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
  • Surat Haruay Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
  • Supawadee Piratae Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
  • Chalida Thammasiri Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
  • Panita Khampoosa Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
  • Jutharat Kulsantiwong Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
  • Sattrachai Prasopdee Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
  • Pairat Tarbsripair Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
  • Rasamee Suwanwerakamtorn Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
  • Somsak Sukchan Office of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Land Development Department, Paholyothin Road, Chatuchak, Bangkok, Thailand.
  • Thidarut Boonmars Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
  • John B. Malone Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, United States.
  • Michael T. Kearney Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, United States.
  • Smarn Tesana | smarn_te@kku.ac.th Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

Abstract

Opisthorchis viverrini infection is associated with human cholangiocarcinoma and northeast Thailand has the highest incidence of this disease in the world. Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos is the major freshwater snail intermediate host of O. viverrini in this area and an analysis based on geographical information systems was used to determine the effect of variation in soil surface salt on the density and distribution of this snail. A malacological survey was carried out in 56 water bodies in the Khorat basin, northeast Thailand at locations with various soil surface salt levels. Mollusk samples were collected from 10 ecologically representative water body sites with 10-20 sampling stations in each. The shoreline of clear, shallow water bodies was found to be the preferred B. s. goniomphalos habitat. The snails were exclusively found in water with salinity levels ranging between 0.05 and 22.11 parts per thousand (ppt), which supports the notion that B. s. goniomphalos prefers water with some saline content over pure, freshwater. The highest snail population densities were in rice fields, ponds, road-side ditches and canals within a water salinity range of 2.5-5.0 ppt. However, the presence of B. s. goniomphalos was negatively correlated with water salinity (P ≤0.05), both with regard to density and distribution. The areas with the highest density of B. s. goniomphalos were those with less than 1% soil surface salt (potential index = 0.314), while the lowest densities were found in areas exceeding 50% soil surface salt (potential index = 0.015).

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Published
2011-05-01
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Original Articles
Keywords:
Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos, Opisthorchis viverrini, water salinity, soil surface salt, geographical information system, Thailand.
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How to Cite
Suwannatrai, A., Suwannatrai, K., Haruay, S., Piratae, S., Thammasiri, C., Khampoosa, P., Kulsantiwong, J., Prasopdee, S., Tarbsripair, P., Suwanwerakamtorn, R., Sukchan, S., Boonmars, T., Malone, J. B., Kearney, M. T., & Tesana, S. (2011). Effect of soil surface salt on the density and distribution of the snail Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos in northeast Thailand. Geospatial Health, 5(2), 183-190. https://doi.org/10.4081/gh.2011.170

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