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Epidemiological aspects and spatial distribution of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic area in northeastern Brazil

Roseane Campos, Márcio Santos, Gabriel Tunon, Luana Cunha, Lucas Magalhães, Juliana Moraes, Danielle Ramalho, Sanmy Lima, José Antônio Pacheco, Michael Lipscomb, Amélia Ribeiro de Jesus, Roque Pacheco de Almeida
  • Roseane Campos
    Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sergipe, Brazil
  • Márcio Santos
    Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sergipe, Brazil
  • Gabriel Tunon
    Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sergipe, Brazil
  • Luana Cunha
    Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sergipe, Brazil
  • Lucas Magalhães
    Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sergipe, Brazil
  • Juliana Moraes
    Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sergipe, Brazil
  • Danielle Ramalho
    Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sergipe, Brazil
  • Sanmy Lima
    Departamento de Geologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sergipe, Brazil
  • José Antônio Pacheco
    Departamento de Geologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sergipe, Brazil
  • Michael Lipscomb
    Department of Biology, Howard University, Washington, DC, United States
  • Amélia Ribeiro de Jesus
    Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sergipe; Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sergipe; Instituto de Investigação em Imunologia, Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia, São Paulo, Brazil
  • Roque Pacheco de Almeida
    Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sergipe; Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sergipe; Instituto de Investigação em Imunologia, Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia, São Paulo, Brazil | roquepachecoalmeida@gmail.com

Abstract

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a systemic disease endemic in tropical countries and transmitted through sand flies. In particular, Canis familiaris (or domesticated dogs) are believed to be a major urban reservoir for the parasite causing the disease Leishmania. The average number of human VL cases was 58 per year in the state of Sergipe. The city of Aracaju, capital of Sergipe in Northeastern Brazil, had 159 cases of VL in humans. Correlatively, the percentage of serologically positive dogs for leishmaniasis increased from 4.73% in 2008 to 12.69% in 2014. Thus, these studies aimed to delineate the spatial distribution and epidemiological aspects of human and canine VL as mutually supportive for increased incidence. The number of human cases of VL and the frequency of canine positive serology for VL both increased between 2008 and 2014. Spatial distribution analyses mapped areas of the city with the highest concentration of human and canine VL cases. The neighbourhoods that showed the highest disease frequency were located on the outskirts of the city and in urbanised areas or subjected to development. Exponential increase in VL-positive dogs further suggests that the disease is expanding in urban areas, where it can serve as a reservoir for transmission of dogs to humans via the sand fly vector.

Keywords

Leishmaniasis; Epidemiological monitoring; Dog diseases; Spatial distribution; Brazil

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Submitted: 2016-08-18 00:10:55
Published: 2017-05-11 10:09:31
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Copyright (c) 2017 Roseane Nunes de Santana Campos, Márcio Bezerra Santos, Gabriel Isaias Lee Tunon, Luana Celina Seraphim Cunha, Lucas Sousa Magalhães, Juliana Lima Silva Moraes, Danielle Melo Sacramento Ramalho, Sanmy Silveira Lima, José Antônio Pacheco de Almeida, Michael Wheeler Lipscomb, Amélia Ribeiro de Jesus, Roque Pacheco de Almeida

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