Urban agriculture and Anopheles habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Stefan Dongus, Dickson Nyika, Khadija Kannady, Deo Mtasiwa, Hassan Mshinda, Laura Gosoniu, Axel W. Drescher, Ulrike Fillinger, Marcel Tanner, Gerry F. Killeen, Marcia C. Castro
  • Stefan Dongus
    Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, Swiss Tropical Institute, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Department of Physical Geography, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; Ifakara Health Institute, Coordination Office, Mikocheni B, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, United Republic of | stefan.dongus@unibas.ch
  • Dickson Nyika
    Ifakara Health Institute, Coordination Office, Mikocheni B, Dar es Salaam; City Medical Office of Health, Dar es Salaam City CouncilDar es Salaam; Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, United Republic of
  • Khadija Kannady
    City Medical Office of Health, Dar es Salaam City Council, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, United Republic of
  • Deo Mtasiwa
    City Medical Office of Health, Dar es Salaam City Council, Dar es Salaam; Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, United Republic of
  • Hassan Mshinda
    Ifakara Health Institute, Coordination Office, Mikocheni B, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, United Republic of
  • Laura Gosoniu
    Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, Swiss Tropical Institute, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
  • Axel W. Drescher
    Department of Physical Geography, University of Freiburg, Freiburg,, Germany
  • Ulrike Fillinger
    Disease Control and Vector Ecology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
  • Marcel Tanner
    Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, Swiss Tropical Institute, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
  • Gerry F. Killeen
    Ifakara Health Institute, Coordination Office, Mikocheni B, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Institute of Ecosystems Science, School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Durham University, Durham, UK; Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Vector Group, Liverpool, United Kingdom
  • Marcia C. Castro
    Department of Population and International Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States

Abstract

A cross-sectional survey of agricultural areas, combined with routinely monitored mosquito larval information, was conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to investigate how agricultural and geographical features may influence the presence of Anopheles larvae. Data were integrated into a geographical information systems framework, and predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in farming areas were assessed using multivariate logistic regression with independent random effects. It was found that more than 5% of the study area (total size 16.8 km2) was used for farming in backyard gardens and larger open spaces. The proportion of habitats containing Anopheles larvae was 1.7 times higher in agricultural areas compared to other areas (95% confidence interval = 1.56-1.92). Significant geographic predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in gardens included location in lowland areas, proximity to river, and relatively impermeable soils. Agriculture-related predictors comprised specific seedbed types, mid-sized gardens, irrigation by wells, as well as cultivation of sugar cane or leafy vegetables. Negative predictors included small garden size, irrigation by tap water, rainfed production and cultivation of leguminous crops or fruit trees. Although there was an increased chance of finding Anopheles larvae in agricultural sites, it was found that breeding sites originated by urban agriculture account for less than a fifth of all breeding sites of malaria vectors in Dar es Salaam. It is suggested that strategies comprising an integrated malaria control effort in malaria-endemic African cities include participatory involvement of farmers by planting shade trees near larval habitats.

Keywords

urban agriculture, Anopheles larvae, geographical information systems, malaria risk, malaria control, Tanzania.

Full Text:

PDF
Submitted: 2014-12-22 12:10:19
Published: 2009-05-01 00:00:00
Search for citations in Google Scholar
Related articles: Google Scholar
Abstract views:
696

Views:
PDF
292

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


Copyright (c) 2009 Stefan Dongus, Dickson Nyika, Khadija Kannady, Deo Mtasiwa, Hassan Mshinda, Laura Gosoniu, Axel W. Drescher, Ulrike Fillinger, Marcel Tanner, Gerry F. Killeen, Marcia C. Castro

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
 
© PAGEPress 2008-2017     -     PAGEPress is a registered trademark property of PAGEPress srl, Italy.     -     VAT: IT02125780185